Universal Human Values

Theory of Basic Human Values

Schwartz’s ten types of universal value are: power, achievement, hedonism, stimulation, self-direction, universalism, benevolence, tradition, conformity, and security. Below are each of the value types, with the specific related values alongside: Power: authority; leadership; dominance, social power, wealth.

The Theory of Basic Human Values is a theory of cross-cultural psychology and universal values that was developed by Shalom H. Schwartz. The theory extends previous cross-cultural communication frameworks such as Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. Schwartz identifies ten basic human values, each distinguished by their underlying motivation or goal, and he explains how people in all cultures recognize them. There are two major methods for measuring these ten basic values:

The Schwartz Value Survey

The Portrait Values Questionnaire.

A particular value can conflict or align with other values, and these dynamic relationships are typically illustrated using a circular graphic in which opposite poles indicate conflicting values.

In a 2012 article, Schwartz and colleagues refined the Theory of Basic Values with an extended set of 19 individual values that serve as “guiding principles in the life of a person or group”. SOURCE – Theory of Basic Human Values

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